Tuesday, June 30, 2015

Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP)


NLP is one of the fastest growing fields of applied psychology. It is
about creativity, learning and change, and how you construct your


In the mid-seventies, Tom Peters was looking for the strategies for
excellence in organisations. At about the same time, John Grinder and
Richard Bandler were looking for the strategies for excellence at the
individual level. Under the influence of the profoundly original British
thinker, Gregory Bateson, John and Richard modeled the skills of some
of the leading masters of communication and personal change.

They called what they were doing Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

‘Neuro’ refers to the neurological processes of seeing, hearing,
feeling, smell and taste, which form the basic building blocks of our

‘Linguistic’ refers to the ways we use language to represent our
experience and communicate with others.

‘Programming’ refers not to programming, as in computers, but rather to
the strategies we use to organize these inner processes to produce

By developing a practical understanding of how we learn, we can
learn how to achieve results that often seem magical. Put simply, the
world we each live in is not the real world. It is a model of the world
that we create unconsciously and live in as though it were real. Most
human problems derive from the models in our heads rather than from the
world as it really is. As you develop your practical understanding of
how these inner models work, you can learn to change unhelpful
habits, thoughts, feelings and beliefs for more useful ones. NLP skills
offer specific and practical ways of making desired changes in your own
and others’ behavior. NLP is the “know how” that works for human
behavior! So now you can ask yourself: how would you like to redesign
your life? And what could you achieve in both your personal and
professional life if you know how?


Modeling skills lie at the heart of NLP. They are the tools of the
study of human excellence and from that study, patterns emerge:
patterns of similarity, patterns of difference. Modeling enables us to
discover the difference between competence and excellence in any given
area of human activity. Increasingly, NLP is being used to cultivate the
skills of outstanding performance in training, business, management,
sales, coaching, counseling, education, sports, and the performing
arts. Within each field, the NLP modeling process is producing many
skills, techniques and ways of thinking that significantly improve
bottom line results.

NLP increases awareness and choice. The skills offer you a practical
way of achieving a highly generative learning ability with which to
produce better results in the areas of your choice. Learning to learn
more effectively may be one of the best investments you can make in a
changing world.

Q: What are the presuppositions of NLP? A: Here are some of them.

1.No one is wrong or broken. People work perfectly to accomplish what
they are currently accomplishing.
2.People already have all the resources they need.
3.Behind every behavior is a positive intention.
4.Every behavior is useful in some context.
5.The meaning of a communication is the response you get.
6.If you aren’t getting the response you want, do something different.
7.There is no such thing as failure. There is only feedback.
8.In any system, the element with the most flexibility exerts the most influence.
9.The map is not the territory.
10.If someone can do something, anyone can learn it.
11.You cannot fail to communicate.


Thursday, April 30, 2015

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)


The intent of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is to protect the civil rights of disabled United States citizens. The first of its five titles (Title I) prohibits employment discrimination towards disabled citizens among certain classes of employers, including public sector employers and employers of 15 or more employees. These employers must accommodate disabled employees through actions such as job restructuring and changing work station layouts, unless this causes undue hardship to the employer. Title II ensures that Public Services will be provided to disabled individuals, particularly public transportation. Discrimination (based on disability) in the provision of services or goods is prohibited by Title III, Public Accommodations. Title IV prohibits time limitations or higher rates for telecommunication services for hearing or speech impaired. Title V covers miscellaneous provisions, including prohibition of discrimination based on an individual’s involvement with an ADA complaint.


Saturday, February 28, 2015

The Research Process


Research is systematic study designed to add to or verify existing knowledge. It is
different from practice theory in that it relies on standardized, formal procedures
in the search for new knowledge. Standardized means the use of systematic and orderly
procedures for collecting data; that the procedures are described in detail; that the
procedures can be replicated by others.

Research is a process involving many steps. These are:

1.Problem Formulation - The process by which researchers develop a precise statement
that can be operationalized.

The problem formulation must be stated in way that ultimately lends itself to
measurement. The research problem is connected through a literature search to other
related problems and knowledge i.e., research is cumulative.

1.Development of questions or hypotheses for study - This includes the development
of conceptual frameworks and operational concepts.

2.Selection of a study design to guide the collection of data.
A.Selection of a study design incorporates many concerns.
a.The research resources available
b.The level of certainty needed by the consumers of the research.
c.Whether human subjects are involved.
d.The time available.
B.Ethical concerns
a.Research cannot lead to harming clients.
b.Denial of an intervention may constitute harm
c.Informed consent

2.Methodology - This includes selecting measurement techniques to be used, the
setting where the research is to be conducted and the population or group to be

Ratio scales are interval scales with an absolute zero point.

Standard deviation is a measure of variability.

In research, a variable that is consequence of an antecedent variable is called a
Dependent Variable

Maturation, regression and experimental mortality are examples of threats to Internal

Survey research may be either descriptive or ex post facto.


Friday, January 30, 2015

The Group Leader as a Person

The Group Leader as a Person

Group-counseling techniques cannot be considered as a separate piece from the leader’s personal characteristics and behaviors. The effectiveness of the group’s direction will be indicative of the life behaviors the leader demonstrates, not in just hearing the leader’s words. Demonstration of self-actualization is not as important as a willingness to commit to continually looking at one’s self. The key is to always be in pursuit of becoming a more effective human being. Reflect what you preach.

Personality and Character


Being motivated by the progress or pain that others experience. The leader’s ability to draw from people’s experiences will make it easier for them to empathize and demonstrate compassion. The ability to genuinely care and become a part of their world, not drift off, and remain open to the reactions of the group, these demonstrate the leader’s presence.

IF YOU ARE PHYSICALLY THERE, BE THERE AND LISTEN! Remain in conversation, use interjection- thoughts as they arise; don’t dwell on them and lose the content. Refrain from thinking of your own problems if they don’t relate to the content of the group.

*Personal Power

Having knowledge of one’s influence over others and a personal self-confidence (Don’t overuse your power over others it’s unethical). If the leader does not feel that they have control or a sense of power in their own life, it will be hard to demonstrate. (Don’t be afraid to get consultation for your own needs) Facilitation of the power one holds and urging members toward movement cannot be done if the leader does not acknowledge this within them. (Modeling) Fostering of dependency is not the key, but rather you want to empower the group to achieve this for themselves. Teach/Support your clients in the skills necessary to be independent.

YOU CAN CONTROL ONLY YOU AND SOME NEED TO BE TAUGHT THIS! Redirect when others are placing too much emphasis on trying to control other group members’ behavior or thoughts.


Leaders show courage by being willing to admit their mistakes, being vulnerable on occasion, acting on their perceptions, sharing their thoughts and feelings, and allowing their power to be shared with the group.

YOU ARE HUMAN, BE WILLING TO ACT LIKE IT AND ADMIT YOUR MISTAKES, WE ALL MAKE SOME! If you appear to be superhuman, clients will be afraid to disclose their faults. Others may develop distrust.

*Willingness to Confront Oneself

Self-investigation is a concept and practice the leader wants to promote. However, they must be willing to partake in this activity themselves. With this being an ongoing process. Questioning of one’s motives for being a group leader, as well as the participants questioning why they are in the group. Self-awareness is the commitment of this confrontation of self, but this includes the bad or negative aspects along with the good or positive.

LOOK IN THE MIRROR, REALLY LOOK IN THE MIRROR, BE HONEST! If you are not willing to look into issues in your own life, why should they?

*Sincerity and Authenticity

A sincere interest in each member’s well being and growth is one of the most important qualities of a leader. This sincerity, caring, involves being able to bring to light points of the member’s lives they may not be willing to address. With authenticity, comes the ability to disclose of oneself, their feelings and reactions to the ongoing of the group in an appropriate manner.

DON’T ACT LIKE YOU CARE, IF YOU REALLY DON’T; IF YOU DO CARE, THEN ACT LIKE IT! Be authentic or lose the purpose of the group system. They need to believe you’re there to help them in order for them to attend to the group.

A Concluding Comment You are not required to possess all of the characteristics, remember you are human. They need someone to model skills after.


Thursday, October 30, 2014

Pyromania and Pathological Gambling

Impulse Control Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified


The diagnosis of pyromania requires the following: deliberate and purposeful fire setting behavior, tension or arousal before the act, fascination with fire, and relief or gratification when witnessing the aftermath of their behavior. There is no monetary gain, desire to hide another crime, expression of anger, or a desire to improve one’s living circumstances. The fire setting behavior is not in response to hallucinations or delusions nor is there seriously impaired judgment due to dementia, intoxication, or mental retardation. This behavior is not better accounted for by conduct disorder, manic episode, or anti-social personality. Pyromania is a controversial diagnosis. Because most arsonists deny guilt and reasons for their fire setting behavior, they can easily be confused with someone who might be diagnosed with pyromania.

Psychoanalytic and Behavioral therapy are often used in the treatment of Pyromania. However, these individuals tend to refuse responsibility for their behavior, use denial excessively, have little insight or desire for insight, and are often alcoholic.

Crisis or excessive stress may trigger fire-setting behavior. If the patient can verbalize and work through their frustrations, he can better deal with stressors. In any case, these patients are difficult to treat.

Pathological Gambling

Pathological Gambling is often considered an addiction and has many features consistent with substance abuse. Criteria for the diagnosis include at least five of the following: preoccupation with gambling or planning to gamble; increasing monetary investment to achieve similar levels of excitement; unsuccessful efforts to control gambling; uses gambling to escape problems; often chases losses with more gambling; lies to others about the behavior; has committed illegal acts to fund the gambling; has risked a relationship, a job, or career or educational opportunity; relies on others to relieve desperate financial situations caused by gambling.

Treatment may be psychodynamic and behavioral therapy. Further, medication has been used to treat the disorder. However, as with many addictions, relapse is high.

Aversive behavior therapy has been used with little efficacy in treatment of Pathological Gambling. Treatment has been found more effective when a multimodal approach is used. One somewhat effective approach includes the use of imaginal desensitization. Gamblers anonymous and group therapy may be the most effective means of psychosocial treatment. Group members can discuss their gambling behavior with others who have similar issues and members can confront denial and self-destructive behavior. Mood stabilizers have some efficacy in treating the disorder. Some patients have co-morbid major depression. Treatment of the depression may make the patient more accessible to other treatment for the gambling.