Sunday, August 30, 2015

Trait Theories

Trait Theories

Standing apart from psychoanalysis, the field of personality psychology was developed in the 1930’s by Harvard theorists Murray and Allport, and worked by, among others, Cattell.

Allport -- saw personality less as a reaction to outside events than as a changing, internal process. Personality traits run from being specific to a certain behavior to a general way of being in the world. Three kinds of traits grouped by Allport are:

common traits -- comparing people in the same culture

personal traits -- five to ten traits used to describe a particular person

cardinal traits -- contributing to a dominant feature in someone’s personality

Allport also concluded that you can understand a person’s philosophy of life by finding out what his or her set of values is (those Harvard guys really have some insight). Allport, Vernon, and Lindzey created the Study of Values assessment, measuring moral/ethical world view according to six attitudinal categories: theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, and religious.

Thursday, July 30, 2015

Frequency Tables and Graphs

Frequency Tables

The frequency of any value of any variable is the number of times that value occurs in the data. That is, a frequency is a count.

The relative frequency of any value is the proportion or fraction or percent of all observations that have that value.

Data are univariate when only one variable is measured on each unit.

Data are bivariate when two variables are measured on each unit.

Data are multivariate when more than one variable is measured on each unit.


Line graphs - show the trend of a variable over time.

Bar graphs - compare the values of several variables. Often, the values compared are frequencies or relative frequencies of outcomes of a nominal variable.

Scatter plots - graph bivariate data when both variables are measured in an interval/ratio or ordinal scale. Units for one variable are marked on the horizontal axis and units for the other on the vertical axis. The independent variable should always go on the horizontal axis when one of the variables is an independent and one a dependent variable.

Solomon is identified with the concept of a research design with three or four groups.

Spearman is responsible for the coefficient of correlation for rank-ordered data.

The calculated and critical “t values” are compared to determine whether or not to reject the Null Hypothesis.

In general, research is theory oriented and evaluation is outcome oriented.

Tuesday, June 30, 2015

Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP)


NLP is one of the fastest growing fields of applied psychology. It is
about creativity, learning and change, and how you construct your


In the mid-seventies, Tom Peters was looking for the strategies for
excellence in organisations. At about the same time, John Grinder and
Richard Bandler were looking for the strategies for excellence at the
individual level. Under the influence of the profoundly original British
thinker, Gregory Bateson, John and Richard modeled the skills of some
of the leading masters of communication and personal change.

They called what they were doing Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

‘Neuro’ refers to the neurological processes of seeing, hearing,
feeling, smell and taste, which form the basic building blocks of our

‘Linguistic’ refers to the ways we use language to represent our
experience and communicate with others.

‘Programming’ refers not to programming, as in computers, but rather to
the strategies we use to organize these inner processes to produce

By developing a practical understanding of how we learn, we can
learn how to achieve results that often seem magical. Put simply, the
world we each live in is not the real world. It is a model of the world
that we create unconsciously and live in as though it were real. Most
human problems derive from the models in our heads rather than from the
world as it really is. As you develop your practical understanding of
how these inner models work, you can learn to change unhelpful
habits, thoughts, feelings and beliefs for more useful ones. NLP skills
offer specific and practical ways of making desired changes in your own
and others’ behavior. NLP is the “know how” that works for human
behavior! So now you can ask yourself: how would you like to redesign
your life? And what could you achieve in both your personal and
professional life if you know how?


Modeling skills lie at the heart of NLP. They are the tools of the
study of human excellence and from that study, patterns emerge:
patterns of similarity, patterns of difference. Modeling enables us to
discover the difference between competence and excellence in any given
area of human activity. Increasingly, NLP is being used to cultivate the
skills of outstanding performance in training, business, management,
sales, coaching, counseling, education, sports, and the performing
arts. Within each field, the NLP modeling process is producing many
skills, techniques and ways of thinking that significantly improve
bottom line results.

NLP increases awareness and choice. The skills offer you a practical
way of achieving a highly generative learning ability with which to
produce better results in the areas of your choice. Learning to learn
more effectively may be one of the best investments you can make in a
changing world.

Q: What are the presuppositions of NLP? A: Here are some of them.

1.No one is wrong or broken. People work perfectly to accomplish what
they are currently accomplishing.
2.People already have all the resources they need.
3.Behind every behavior is a positive intention.
4.Every behavior is useful in some context.
5.The meaning of a communication is the response you get.
6.If you aren’t getting the response you want, do something different.
7.There is no such thing as failure. There is only feedback.
8.In any system, the element with the most flexibility exerts the most influence.
9.The map is not the territory.
10.If someone can do something, anyone can learn it.
11.You cannot fail to communicate.

Saturday, May 30, 2015

Job Descriptors

Physical demands of a job are described from the more demanding jobs that require strength for lifting to less physically demanding jobs that require skills such as seeing. Physical conditions vary from quiet indoor jobs with no extremes of temperature to noisy outdoor jobs with extremes of temperature, moisture, vibrations, and work hazards. Specific vocational preparation is symbolized by numbers ranging from 1 (short demonstration only) to 9 (10 years or more of training/education).

The Office of Employment Statistics rates skill levels in 3 categories:

unskilled (svp is 1-2)
semi-skilled (svp 3-6) and
skilled (svp 7-9).

Thursday, April 30, 2015

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)


The intent of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is to protect the civil rights of disabled United States citizens. The first of its five titles (Title I) prohibits employment discrimination towards disabled citizens among certain classes of employers, including public sector employers and employers of 15 or more employees. These employers must accommodate disabled employees through actions such as job restructuring and changing work station layouts, unless this causes undue hardship to the employer. Title II ensures that Public Services will be provided to disabled individuals, particularly public transportation. Discrimination (based on disability) in the provision of services or goods is prohibited by Title III, Public Accommodations. Title IV prohibits time limitations or higher rates for telecommunication services for hearing or speech impaired. Title V covers miscellaneous provisions, including prohibition of discrimination based on an individual’s involvement with an ADA complaint.